How easy is the automotive subsystem to interconnect

In the past, car infotainment systems used mainly 5V and 3.3V power supplies because of the off-the-shelf 12-14V battery in automotive systems. Today, several key factors are driving the need for in-vehicle infotainment systems, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and cluster systems to operate at lower voltages.

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Over the past decade, mobile and computing systems technology has grown rapidly, enabling people to run a variety of audio and video functions and gain a rich experience. Increasingly, consumers also want to be able to achieve the same content and functionality in their car infotainment system. Previously, automakers often used a single-touch screen with Bluetooth to achieve this, and today they are beginning to use tablet-sized multi-touch displays. This display supports multiple functions such as network access, high-definition multimedia interface (HDMI) and USB interface.

Automotive Tier 1 manufacturers leveraged the electronic infrastructure built for mobile and computing technologies and applied them to automotive infotainment systems and cluster systems. The modular design of these increasingly complex systems allows OEMs (original equipment manufacturers) to choose the features of the system based on the vehicle class. To maximize the functionality of these mixed-mode voltage systems, voltage level shifters are required to interconnect different subsystems.

When docking a 3.3V device with a previous 5V system, there are two main problems. On the one hand, the VOH (output high voltage) of the 3.3V system cannot meet the VIH (input high voltage) threshold required by the 5V system, and the VOL (output low voltage) of the 5V system cannot meet the 3.3V system to the VIL (input low voltage). ) the demand. In systems with lower voltages, the incompatibility differences between VOH/VIH and VOL/VIL are small, and this problem is often not easily noticed. The device seems to be able to communicate at the beginning, but then the communication is stopped because the difference between the VOL and the VI is too small. In a larger temperature range like a car, the problem of threshold mismatch will be further highlighted.

To solve this problem, engineers can use a full line of Texas Instruments automotive grade voltage level shifters. The SN74LVCxxT245-Q1, SN74AVCxxT245-Q1, TXB010x-Q1 and TXS010x-Q1 series are ideal for solving the voltage mismatch problem. The “x” in the series name indicates the number of bits or channels to be converted. Depending on the type of output (push, pull or open drain), load conditions and signal direction, an appropriate solution can be chosen to "level shift" to the desired voltage.

The SN74LVCxxT245-Q1 and SN74AVCxxT245-Q1 series are ideal for connecting multiple devices or a larger load bus. These devices can deliver up to 12mA and are designed to drive loads up to 15pF. At the same time, this also means that the main processor needs to control the data flow of the device.

The TXB010x-Q1 series devices are suitable for bus applications in mixed voltage/mixed directions. Such devices can be plug-and-play without the intervention of the main processor, becoming a completely autonomous solution. However, due to its relatively low current drive capability, it is more suitable for point-to-point bus applications.

Much like the TXB010x-Q1 series, the TXS010x-Q1 also requires no processor intervention, but it is primarily intended for open-drain applications (eg, I2C) or reset/interrupt pins that have an external pull-up voltage.

The next-generation "start-stop" system provides battery voltages below 3V, which will further accelerate migration to lower voltage subsystems. Voltage level translation is an indispensable technology for infotainment systems, cluster systems, or ADAS.

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