Analysis on the Application of GIS Technology in the Field of Security Monitoring

The introduction of GIS technology in the security field is not accidental. There are many links between the two, and their combination will promote the development of the security industry to a large extent. At the same time, it is also a good complement and improvement to GIS itself.. .

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Introduction to GIS technology

GIS Geographic Information System (GIS) is based on geospatial database. With the support of computer software and hardware, it uses system engineering and information science theory to scientifically manage and comprehensively analyze geographic data with spatial connotation to provide management and decision-making. A technical system that requires information.

In recent decades, GIS technology has developed rapidly, and its application covers almost all fields. Currently, it is mainly used in transportation, military public security, post and telecommunications, agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, disaster prediction, land management, urban planning, resource survey, environmental assessment, Water conservancy and electric power, public facilities management, statistics, commercial finance, etc.

The main data comes from control measurements, digital photogrammetry, remote sensing, digitization and other methods. The main carriers and application methods are GIS server, PC client, PC stand-alone application, mobile PDA, tablet, smart phone, Web service and so on.

Computer technology is the foundation of GIS. GIS has been progressing along with the development of computer technology. Under the support of computer technology development and various new application requirements, GIS is developing massive data management, efficient data processing and rendering, and virtual reality. (Augmented reality), cloud services, mobile and other directions.

Industry application status

In recent years, with the development of society, various new application requirements have been put forward in the security field. At present, some monitoring platform software has used GIS to realize basic map browsing, business layer editing, feature positioning, dynamic target monitoring, and emergency command. , path planning, remote navigation, 3D scene video query, video retrieval, video playback and other functions, GIS application on the security monitoring platform has taken shape, but the combination of the two, both in terms of breadth and depth, Did not reach a satisfactory level.

The main direction

1. Security target geographic information management

Incorporate video capture equipment, video storage equipment, servers, access control, alarm host, bayonet equipment and monitoring targets into the geographic information system, establish a dedicated vectorized business layer, and incorporate the system base map management. The following basics can be realized by using GIS components. Features:

Label the monitoring device on the map, and specify the label style (symbol, color, size, icon, etc.) by the user;

Customizable layer prompt information, when the mouse is hovering over the map feature target, the prompt information floating frame is displayed;

Add devices to the map layer by dragging and dropping from the device list or device library;

Accurately locate the device in the map with the latitude and longitude under the specified coordinate system, and customize the positioning pattern such as blinking;

When the device alarms, the GIS map component linkage can also be controlled through the associated service management;

Map zoom in, zoom out, roam, measure, map print, click, multi-select (rectangular frame selection, polygon selection, circle selection), query properties (such as camera model, number, and other custom information), etc. The selected device or right-click menu can operate the device to perform actions (such as viewing real-time video, video playback, alarm arming and disarming, camera field of view analysis, moving target track playback).

2, mobile target monitoring

Real-time display of GIS maps to dynamically render the position, direction, speed and other information of moving targets. Currently, it is mostly used for vehicle monitoring, personnel positioning, remote navigation, etc. with mobile positioning equipment. The basic functions are analyzed as follows:

View the location and attribute description information of the target in real time on the map;

View multiple targets simultaneously in the map, or the map range follows a single target movement;

Target track playback, by time range or by map range;

View mobile target video in real time;

Perform statistical calculations on the target travel miles;

State alarms such as stationary, motion, signal loss, and target up and down lines;

Target location alarms, such as path offsets, adjacent feature points, out of bounds, etc.;

The GIS spatial analysis method is used to query a real-time video that appears in a video channel or a video clip that combines time-condition conditions at a certain time period. At present, the query is only a simple area buffer method, and does not consider factors such as the visual distance, azimuth, and real-time status of the camera.

3. Auxiliary decision-making command

Use GIS's analysis function to perform situation analysis display, path selection, location planning, and resource allocation:

Quickly plan rescue routes, dispatch personnel, materials, etc. when dealing with emergencies;

Draw a situation map and demonstrate a battle plan. Using the graphical tools of GIS, draw a situational map to demonstrate the simulation deductive battle plan;

Calculate and visualize the optimal path. It is the key to construct the basic path network by determining the weight component according to the demand and investigating the basic data (such as the length of the road segment, the capacity of the traffic, the real-time traffic situation, etc.) and calculating the weight.

Restrict bottleneck

1. Security geoinformatization standard

For GIS applications, the benefits of standardization are obvious, and the lack of guidance and constraints of standard specifications often leads to many problems. First, data is fundamental to information systems, and everything is rooted in data. Spatial data is fundamental to GIS. Due to the particularity of spatial data, spatial data in real life often differs greatly in format, specification, and quality. This is not enough for GIS with high data quality requirements. To this end, the introduction of GIS in the security field must determine the corresponding spatial data standards according to the application needs to guide the industry data acquisition work. Standards usually include specifications such as data acquisition channels, data storage, data exchange, feature classification, and data scale. Secondly, the symbolization standards in the industry are not uniform, which will greatly affect the user experience and increase the user's use cost. Therefore, for industry map elements, there should be industry-recognized symbolization standards. The purpose of GIS applications is to make certain time-space-related content appear in an intuitive way. Visualization is one of the most important advantages of GIS, so unified Industry symbolization standards are critical. In addition, other content such as industry specific nouns are not uniform, etc., which will lead to an increase in the cost of use and technology learning for users, system builders, and other related personnel. From the perspective of industry development, it is very unfavorable.

In recent years, the state has invested heavily in the construction of a national basic geographic information platform, and has developed a series of standards for many GIS application industries (such as police geographic information systems, GPS navigation geographic information systems) based on basic geographic information standards. The demand has produced various industry standards for geographic information, such as police geographic information standards and navigation geographic information standards. However, with the continuous deepening and expansion of GIS applications, the degree of standardization in various industries is generally not ideal, mainly in the absence or lack of standards. At present, the geoinformatization standard of the security industry has not been released, which greatly affects and restricts the application of GIS in the security industry.

2, the basic data source

The general data sources of GIS mainly include control measurement and measurement data, digitization of existing paper maps, existing spatial data files or databases, remote sensing images, and statistical data.

At present, there are two main ways to apply GIS in the monitoring platform. One is to use the map service API provided by GoogleMap, MapABC, MapBar, SougouMap, etc. The other is to purchase or obtain the required data from other channels, based on These data are implemented using a third-party GIS infrastructure platform. For the first implementation, the function is relatively weak. According to the terms of use of various APIs and the restrictions on commercial applications, there is a certain economic cost; the second implementation can achieve higher-level applications, but the basic data. There are many sources, plus different standards, and the amount of data is huge. To integrate these data into the same basic map, the process of processing and integration requires a considerable price.

3. The cost of using third-party GIS platforms

The cost of using the third-party GIS platform is manifested in two aspects, one is the use of technology learning costs of the GIS platform, and the other is the deployment authorization fee of the GIS platform. Most commercial GIS is expensive. In some application scenarios, consider using some mature open source platforms to reduce costs.

Combination point and development trend

The introduction of GIS in the security field is not accidental. There are many links between the two. Their combination will promote the development of the security industry to a large extent. At the same time, it is also a good complement and improvement to GIS itself. The partial correlation points of the two are analyzed as follows.

Target Geographic Information and Map Data Management

Geographic informationization refers to the integration of time and space related targets in the security field according to the basic form of geographic information, forming GIS map elements containing graphic objects and attributes, and incorporating them into the spatial database for unified management in the form of data layers. The system basemap may contain one or more security domain-specific business layers, while the layer contains a series of features, one element represents a target, and the graphic object and a property record are combined. The graphic object is usually composed of basic points (such as Camera), line (such as vehicle running track), face (such as a monitoring cell), attribute table stores the auxiliary information of the target (such as camera number, name, type and other attributes, etc.), graphic object and attribute table record The rows are associated by a unique identification number to achieve mutual investigation of spatial information and attribute tables.

With the deepening and expansion of GIS applications, in order to better promote industry application and development, industry application standardization will become a necessity.

Emergency decision-making command and geography mathematical model

Emergency decision-making command generally means that when an emergency occurs, the relevant responsible department of the event needs to quickly carry out information aggregation and comprehensive evaluation and decision-making to guide a series of reaction actions, and finally solve the event with an optimal solution. GIS is able to realize the auxiliary decision-making application in various complex situations with its unique space-time visualization advantage and the perfect support for various complex geographic mathematical models.

Achieve more effective and intelligent decision support by introducing more scientific and reliable decision models.

Video Query and Virtual Reality

Video query is one of the basic functions of the monitoring platform and one of the most important functions. It is divided into real-time video query and video query here. The purpose of the query is to locate as accurately as possible. Most of the time we view live video to see if a place is normal (such as a corner), and most of the current video surveillance platforms have no query function for real-time video viewing, or Only simple queries based on attributes such as device names do not implement true spatial location-oriented precision queries. Using virtual reality technology to build a 3D model of the monitoring target area, the user selection area is included in the 3D model for query operation, and the related equipment can be found. The same reason can be used for video query, but the time condition can be added. Obviously, this search mode is more intuitive and more accurate. The introduction of virtual reality will bring users a more intuitive and easy-to-use application experience.

Mobile Monitoring and Mobile GIS

Mobile target monitoring refers to the use of a centralized monitoring platform to manage and monitor a group of mobile targets with positioning device terminals. There are two main points. First, the monitored target needs to carry the positioning device terminal. Second, the monitoring center is required. The monitored target reports the positioning information and status to the monitoring center through the wireless network. If the mobile GIS platform is configured on the monitored mobile target at the same time, the mobile target has the GIS data collection, storage, and display capabilities, which can completely change the monitoring center unilateral monitoring and the passive monitoring mode of the moving target, which is in some scenarios. It is very important. For example, when the network environment is unstable, the location information transmitted by the mobile target may be lost, resulting in incomplete location data stored in the monitoring center. In this case, the data stored in the mobile GIS carried by the mobile target may be used to complete the data. Mobile GIS can also be used for map visualization to display certain instructions issued by the monitoring center to mobile targets.

With the development of the mobile Internet era, the trend of mobility and networking has become obvious.

Cloud Video Surveillance Service and Cloud GIS

With the rise of cloud computing technology, people have initially felt its charm. For a considerable number of application scenarios, cloud services have many advantages. First, large-scale operators provide infrastructure that allows applications to eliminate large amounts of physical construction and maintenance costs. Second, the cost of using cloud services is lower than that of a separate desktop application, or less upfront investment and a fixed monthly business expense. In addition, the application of cloud service deployment is more convenient in terms of upgrade and maintenance.

At present, the cloud video service is in operation, and the front-end video capture device and the back-end storage device are unified and integrated in the cloud service mode by using the scaled hardware resources of the cloud service and the centralized and unified software technology support. To achieve cloud video surveillance services. Cloud GIS deploys GIS data and tools in the form of cloud services and provides them to users.

Security monitoring applications in the new era require the support of GIS. Therefore, security monitoring needs to cloud GIS to move toward the "cloud".

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