Network Technology Foundation: Introduction of Gateway

Network Technology Foundation: Introduction of Gateway

For the term gateway, I believe that those who have experience with heavy equipment will not feel strange. When we configure the network before reinstalling the system, if a fixed IP address is used, there will always be a dialog box asking us to enter the IP address, subnet mask, gateway and other information. Although we can often add the gateway address habitually, do you understand what role this gateway plays in your daily Internet surfing process?

The gateway, or Gateway, is the mark of the local network, which means that the data crosses the gateway from the local network, which means that it exits the local network. Therefore, the gateway is also a communication device of different networks (different protocols or networks of different sizes). It can divide the local area network into several network segments, interconnect the relevant local area networks in the private wide area network, and interconnect the wide area networks to form the Internet. In the early Internet, the gateway used to refer to only those routers used to complete specialized functions, but with the development of network technology and computer technology, ordinary hosts and switching hubs can complete routing functions. So now the gateways of schools that have generally moved to the education network all use hosts.

Gateways are roughly divided into three categories according to function:
1) Protocol gateway: As the name implies, the main function of this type of gateway is protocol conversion between networks of different protocols. Since the development of the network, there are several common ones such as: 802.3 (Ethernet), IrDa (Infrared Data AssociaTIon, Infrared Data Alliance), WAN (Wide Area Networks), 802.5 (Token Ring), X2.5, 802.11 a. 802.11b, 802.11g, WPA, etc. Different networks have different data encapsulation formats, different data packet sizes, and different transmission rates. However, data sharing and communication between these networks is inevitable. In order to eliminate the differences between different networks and allow data to communicate smoothly, we need a dedicated translator, which is a protocol gateway. He used one network to understand other networks, and also used him to make different networks connect to become a huge Internet.

2) Application gateway: It is mainly a set of gateways for some special applications, which mainly converts a data format of a service into another data format of the service, so as to realize data exchange. This gateway is often used as a server for a specific service, but it also has the function of a gateway. The most common such server is the mail server. We know that e-mail has several formats, such as POP3, SMTP, FAX, X.400, MHS, etc. If the SMTP mail server provides gateway interfaces for POP3, SMTP, FAX, X.400 and other mail, then we can Sending emails to other servers through SMTP mail server without hesitation.

3) Security gateway: The most commonly used security gateway is a packet filter, which actually authorizes the original address, destination address, port number, and network protocol of the data packet. By filtering the information, the data packets with permission are transmitted through the gateway, and the data packets without permission are intercepted or even discarded. This is similar to the software firewall in a certain sense, but compared with the software firewall, the security gateway has a larger data processing volume and faster processing speed, which can protect the entire local network without causing bottlenecks to the entire network.

In addition, Microsoft has recently proposed its own classification scheme from the daily functions of gateways: data gateways (mainly used for simple routers for data throughput, providing delivery support for network protocols), multimedia gateways (except data gateways In addition to the features, it also provides features for the transmission of audio and video content), collective control gateway (to achieve home control and security service management on the network).

Generally, a gateway does not strictly belong to a certain category. Generally it is a collection of several functions. For example, a common video broadband network gateway is a collection of data gateways and multimedia gateways. There is also a school gateway that has generally moved into the education network. It not only acts as a data gateway, but also serves as a security gateway.

It is because of the gateway that we can enjoy such rich network resources, and also because of the gateway, we can create a safer and more perfect network environment.

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